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Quality of life
Quality of life (QOL) is an overarching term for the quality of the various domains in life. It is a standard level that consists of the expectations of an individual or society for a good life. These expectations are guided by the values, goals and socio-cultural context in which an individual lives. It is a subjective, multidimensional concept that defines a standard level for emotional, physical, material and social well-being. It serves as a reference against which an individual or society can measure the different domains of one’s own life. The extent to which one’s own life coincides with this desired standard level, put differently, the degree to which these domains give satisfaction and as such contribute to one’s subjective well-being, is called life satisfaction.
A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank and title to a king, who reigns in her own right over a realm known as a “kingdom”; as opposed to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king; or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and rules temporarily in the child’s stead, be it de jure in sharing power, or de facto in ruling alone. A princess regnant is a female monarch who reigns in her own right over a “principality”; an empress regnant is a female monarch who reigns in her own right over an “empire”.
A queen regnant possesses and exercises sovereign powers, whereas a queen consort or queen regent shares her spouse’s and/or child’s rank and titles, but does not share the sovereignty of her spouse or child. The husband or child of a queen regnant traditionally does not share the queen regnant’s rank, title or sovereignty. However, the concept of a king consort or prince consort is not unheard of in both contemporary and classical periods.
A queen dowager or empress dowager is the widow of a king or emperor; a queen mother is a queen dowager who is also the mother of a reigning sovereign.